Tim Valentine, Tim Brennen and Serge Bredart examine current thinking on the creation and retrieval of proper names. They draw on evidence from speech production, face recognition and word recognition to develop a new model of the production and recognition of people's names. Help Centre. Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review.
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All Rights Reserved. In Stock. Memory Craft Improve your memory using the most powerful met It was a year after the onset of his disease before he was able to relearn the names of his wife and of his son and to retrieve them consistently. The following is a detailed account of his performance. Proper names are often used to label institutions, brands or industrialproducts, but in this latter case they zyxwvu Downloaded by [The University of Manchester Library] at 19 November originate usually from the names of persons and places.
PROPER NAMES IN AGING: RELATIONSHIP WITH COGNITIVE RESERVE
Since there is no way of being sure how a subject would represent them in hisher semantic system, examples of thissecond type were excluded from the present study. It is safe to say, however, that the patient generally had the same difficulties with them as with other proper names. Visual Confrontation Naming Apart from proper names, PC never showed any difficulties in visual confrontation naming. The latter categories according to the definition given by Goodglass et al. On all these categories performance was flawless, as shown in Table 1. With real persons, PC gave the correct name only for his wife and son they both had relatively uncommon names.
He gave, however, correct information on zyxwvu others e. When presented with pictures of famous persons his performance was ODO.
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In all these cases he had no difficulty in matching the names whether spoken aloud by the examiner or written with the real person or with the pictures of famous persons in six alternating multiple choices. When shown the picture of a famous meeting of national leaders in a group of about 30 persons, many of whom were not famous , he correctly identified all the major figures whose names had been given by the examiner. In everyday life he never showed any difficulty in understanding spoken or written names he should have known.
He could not produce a single name correctly from 15 pictures and 15 map sites, but he was able to match them correctly in pairs e. When given the name of these geographical labels by the examiner he never failed to locate them correctly on the map. Here and in all of the following tasks he never made paraphasic errors; his failures were only omissions. He showed no improvement at all in this or in any of the following tasks when allowed to make a written response.
He could point correctly to all the geographical locations on the blank atlas.
Apart for proper names, which again produced by far the worst performance, he showed no particular hesitation in starting. In this task he sometimes imposed more organisation than required by using subcategory retrieval strategies, e.
Mean number of birds named in a minute was 7. Each zyxwvuts subject of this control group gave a minimum of 12 person names, 10 city names and 5 rivers. PCs performance seems therefore within normal limits as far as birds' names are concerned. It should also be pointed out that, given extra time, he provided several other names of birds, but that extra time did not help him at all in providing more proper names.
The instruction in these cases were to give as many words beginning with F M as he could. These words had to be common nouns e. Additional time did not improve his performance with proper names at all, while for all other categories he zyxwvu continued to give new correct names. Short-term Memory for Individual Names zyxwv zyx PC was able to repeat immediately any proper name and to retrieve it if allowed to rehearse it silently without interference. He failed to remember any given proper name after 3Osecs if he had to count backwards in 4s from Downloaded by [The University of Manchester Library] at 19 November Fifteen proper names of well-known persons and 5 cities were used.
Shortening the time to lGl5secs did not give better results. A few other interference procedures were tried to no avail e. These and less formal attempts gave the impression that any interference would cause his performance to drop to zero in a few seconds. His performance was flawless with other material. Semantic Cueing Some proper names surnames, in general have a real meaning.
Therefore PC was asked to name a number of famous persons from a description which included a cue related to the meaning of their name. However, in 4 out of the 8 cases he also needed a phonetic cue consisting of the first letter of the name phonetic cueing alone had, however, been found to be completely ineffective in previous testing. This suggested that proper names, like certain other categories, might be processed independently within the zyxw semantic system. Why this should be the case,and what characteristicsa category must have to be treated so differently, are important questions that so far have received only partial answers.
Most reports of cases have been descriptions, but a number of speculations about other category-specific dissociations have been made which are worth consideringto see whether they can account for zyxwvuts Downloaded by [The University of Manchester Library] at 19 November the dissociation observed in PC. Goodglass et al. By this term it is meant that most common exemplars of the category are limited in number and their category membership is clearly defined.
Goodglass and co- workers provide a further suggestion, observing that the categories of body parts, letters, and colours are likely to be learned early and in many cases practised as a defined set in childhood. It is obvious that these properties do zyxwvuts not apply to proper names. The identification of an inanimate object would crucially depend on the determination of its functional significance, but this would be irrelevant for identification of living things, for which sensory attributes provide the definitive characteristics.
However, proper names are labels of entities which have perceptual and functional attributes in varying proportions, and therefore no such dual code theory of semantic memory would neatly distinguish proper names from other categories. What theu is special about proper names? This issue has been much zyx debated in philosophy for over a century. According to this theory the function of proper names is simply to refer to the objects so named and not to describe them by any property. In other words a proper name is a direct reference to an individual or to a specific object without any characterisation of it or any link with conceptual networks.
Descriptions, on the other hand, are references made only by means of general properties, and links exist to conceptual networks. A few additional points can be made about the observation of another category-specrfic anomia. His deficit is limited to naming; he has no difficulty in recognition. As in other similar cases the deficit can therefore be postulated at the level of Downloaded by [The University of Manchester Library] at 19 November the output lexicon which would therefore be presumed to be categorically organised see, for instance, Hart et al.
A final set of more general considerationsreturns to the question of why certain categories are selectively impaired or preserved. A simple answer would be that they are the most frequently and systematically tested. Another possibility is that in fact all categories can be affected but some categories are more likely to be and future observationswill show that virtually every category can stand out from others after brain damage.
This, even if true, still leaves the problem of what the difference is between those categoriesmore likely to dissociate and zyxw zyxwvu the others. As has already been observed, a single answer is difficult to find and may be impossible to obtain, since there appears to be nothing in common between the categories selectivelyaffected or preserved in aphasia. A step toward the truth can probably be made from a general consideration of the principles underlying human categorisation systems.
According to Rosch , formation of categories in the culture appears to be the result of specific principles of categorisation rather than of historical accidents or of whimsy. These principles are not, however, intended to constitute a model of how categories are processed in the minds of adult speakers of a language. This important distinction may apply here.
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However, odd, ill- defined, and scarcely delimited categories e. Also-and more importantly-no economy principle could account for the disparate range of oftensverlapping categories that are selectivelyaffected or spared. A conclusion might therefore be that what is impossible in the formation of a culture is still possible in actual informationprocessing, which does not always operate in accordance with the principle of cognitive economy.
This could happen for various reasons, not necessarily all of the same type,which could include those proposed by Goodglasset al. If this conclusion were accepted there would still remain one last problem: are the cases of McKenna and Warrington ; , which involve preservation of countries and impairment of the names of specific persons, Downloaded by [The University of Manchester Library] at 19 November just more pure examples of Pc's inability to generate all proper names?
At present this question remains unresolved.
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