They spoke into the funnel, causing the paper to vibrate and the needle to incise an irregular fine line in the receptive, rotating surface of the cylinder. This wavy mark in the wax was then fixed with varnish, at which point the students were able to reverse the process, playing back the recording with the needle and listening intently to their voices through the funnel.
This became apparent years later when, as an anatomy student in Paris, he cast a glance at a human skull bathed in candle light. In that half-light, the coronal suture became strikingly visible and reminded him of the wavy line scratched on the cylinder of the primitive phonograph. The phonograph was but one of several inventions of the nineteenth century that received and recorded subtle vibrations and waves; another was the camera. However, their aims and methods were quite different. Before he became interested in photography, Marey spent years developing and improving receiving and recording instruments, which in a clinical setting could trace the small involuntary motions of the body, such as heart beats, blood pressure, respiration rates and so on.
He invented, for example, the sphygmograph, a portable gadget that was attached to the wrist to measure the pulse. The motions recorded are barely perceptible, but the sensitive recording instruments he devised and promoted could pick up minute vibrations and transmit them to a stylus that would make a corresponding mark on a rotating cylinder fig.
The image that Marey produced in this way was a single graphic field on which variations over time were displayed.
The Transformations of Giulio Romano: Palazzo Stati Maccarani
Muybridge took still photographs in quick succession of a figure in motion. These could be displayed as a series of stills or projected as a short film. He wanted to capture the trajectory of the moving body on a single field and tried to do so using a camera. However, the cumulative effect of overlapping photographic exposures tended to obscure the picture.
To remedy this problem, Marey devised ways of blinding the camera to all but the most essential movements: he dressed his model in black velvet cloth and attached silver buttons and metallic strips to the joints and limbs and had his subject move in front of a black wall. The result was, like his graphic traces of inner bodily perturbations, something between an index and a diagram. It was also a startlingly beautiful new kind of picture.
Equally significant is the way surrealists took up the graphic trace.
For artists and writers associated with the surrealist movement, the impersonal automatism served as a model to be imitated. But we, who have made no effort to filter, who in our works have made ourselves into simple receptacles of so many echoes, modest recording instruments who are not mesmerized by the drawings we are making, perhaps we serve an even nobler cause. One of the terms used in this account of the graphic trace, the index, was developed by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce.
As part of a highly complex theory of sign systems, Peirce introduced the tripartite division of signs — the icon, the symbol, and the index — based on their differing means of signification: broadly, the icon depends on similarity, the symbol on convention and the index on some physical or existential connection.
However, he made clear the view that all types of signs involve a combination of these three major types. For Peirce, every index carries with it a shock since, by directing attention, it changes perception and this is always to some extent shocking. The index as trace, however, is produced or caused by actual contact with an object a footprint in the sand, for example but the object itself is absent. In this instance, attention is directed to something that was present in the past. His invention, the rayograph, Krauss notes, is an exemplary case of a type of photography that takes advantage of the indexical, more than the iconic, aspect of the medium.
Many works by Cuban-born, American artist, Felix Gonzalez-Torres , make use of the character of the index as trace or witness to an anteriority. The image shows an unmade double bed with two pillows bearing the impression of the heads of those who had recently occupied it. The image is striking because it makes such an intimate domestic scene so public.
It is also remarkable for its doubling effect, not only the doubling of identical pillows, but also the doubling of the indexical traces on the pillows by the indexical character of the photograph, making the image a trace of a trace. The billboards functioned, then, as memorials commemorating their loving relationship. This gesture was subtly transgressive in the context of the hysterical reaction to the AIDS epidemic in the United States and conservative attacks on homosexuality.
Now, in retrospect, the emptiness of the bed recalls that the artist himself died just five years later. Gonzales-Torres used the power of the index as trace to refer to past presence and present absence.
Yet it is not the sort of artistic use of the index that picks up and records bodily or mental perturbations. Between July 3rd and September 15th, , I carried small balls of clay in my hands during all the flights I took to various destinations. To transform these balls into works of art was very easy. I just exploited my natural and acquired fear of flying and kept squeezing them all the time in my fists. Some of them were held for three hours, some for one. The bodily involuntariness of the clay sculptures is matched by the computerised automaticity of his boarding passes displayed alongside the hand-made pieces.
Showing how the Rays combine, fuse and blend into an individual's Ray chart. NOTE: This volume is available as a free digital download below.
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Volume 1 is pages long, so if you prefer a hardcopy version, you may purchase it from the Store. Gives insight into critical evolutionary and transformational challenges. Discusses the proposed Ray charts of well known historical figures. This volume is focused on the intersection of Astrology and Rayology, or "Astro-Rayology. This particular volume is an ongoing work in progress. You may access this volume from the Makara website. In those days a long-time split still existed in the Tarot world. On one side stood the grand tradition of the occultists, from Antoine Court de Gebelin down through the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and its descendants.
On the other we found the tradition of readings, almost despised by the occultists. To some extent, this reflected a gender split as well. Tarot readers were mostly women. It is not an accident that when most people visualize a Tarot reader, they see a woman in a headscarf. In the s a group of writers, primarily women, began to take Tarot in a new direction. Such people as Mary Greer, Angeles Arrien, James Wanless and Gail Fairfield began with a knowledge of the occult tradition and also the ideas and techniques of psychology and counselling but focused their work on the.
Seventy-eight Degrees of Wisdom, originally published in two parts in and , was one of the first books in this movement. Tarot for Yourself or Gail Fairfield's Choice-centred Tarot, Seventy-eight Degrees cif Wisdom nevertheless attempted to give people a tool to understand and ultimately transform their lives. The book and its ideas evolved over time.
A year after my friend Linda moved to Denmark, my partner Edith and I also moved to Europe, expecting to stay a year or two. I returned to the United States. Tarot and reads professionally.
She is, and has always been, as the Dedication to this book says, the best reader I know. In France we met a group of artists renovating a medieval chateau. They looked with astonishment at our Rider pack, just as we were amazed to discover the game of Tarot that they played with a set of cards showing elaborate courtly figures but little symbolism. Every year, when we visited our friends and family back in New York, we brought our cards with us. In the Summer of.
The Human Difference
The first evening, Marilyn, a therapist, asked me if I would teach her about the cards. At the end of that time we each had learned something. Marilyn felt comfortable enough with the cards to begin using them for her clients, and I discovered that I had something to teach. A year and a half later, I needed a job. The programme committee listed to my ideas, and then asked if I would do a sample reading. T he only woman on the committee volunteered. When we laid out the cards I saw such heartbreak that I knew the only thing I could do was read the cards as if no one else existed in that room but her and me.
T he reading described the situation in depth, including ways for her to go on with her life. T he class ran for two years. To organize the class I needed to develop and codify my understanding of the cards. Along the way I decided to transform my class notes into a book. I asked him if he could suggest a likely publisher. Thus, Seventy-eight Degrees of Wisdom began as a discussion on a beach in New York and came to life first in a Dutch translation. I am indebted always to Nick for taking a chance on an unknown writer, and for the various international editions he and his son David have arranged for this book - including the English edition by the Aquarian Press.
For various reasons, earlier editions of this work were published in two volumes.
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